Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Martin Gardner and the Paranormal: An Appreciation and Critique

Martin Gardner died on May 22, 2010. There will be many articles and tributes to him in the coming weeks and months, but probably few will be from proponents of the paranormal. Gardner generally was not liked by them, and the feeling was mutual.

He had a real dislike for some researchers, including J.B. Rhine and Russell Targ (as well as some members of Targ’s family).1 Nor was he able to maintain friendly relations with moderate skeptic Marcello Truzzi. Gardner was a “hard-line” debunker, and his writings were frequently laced with invective, sarcasm, and ridicule—a style less suited for scholarly journals but more for zines such as Saucer Smear (Gardner was a non-subscriber to Smear, and an occasional contributor).2

But the implications of the paranormal debates go far beyond the personalities, foibles, and animosities of those involved in the disputes. Gardner is too important to be dismissed, and the twentieth-century controversy over the reality of psychic phenomena cannot be understood without him.3

He dealt with the issues frequently, in depth, and for more than half a century. He was passionate about the topic, and it is not too strong to say that paranormal claims enraged him. In its own way, the paranormal was part of his life, and part of him. His writings, and also his person, merit attention. The emotion that paranormal controversies generates, and the schisms they provoke, are key to understanding the anti-structural nature of the phenomena.4

I grew up reading Gardner’s Mathematical Games column in Scientific American, long before I had any interest in the paranormal. His occasional allusions to the paranormal sometimes puzzled me, but I didn’t pay much attention to them. After I developed an interest in parapsychology and began reading The Zetetic, Skeptical Inquirer, and Zetetic Scholar, I became familiar with the controversies, and of course, with Gardner’s role. His clear, vigorous (even vicious!) prose, was fun to read, if one was not too close to the receiving end. Newsweek magazine commented: “Gentle as he is, he is driven almost beyond satire...he wields Ockham’s razor like a switchblade.”5

My own opinion of Gardner is comparatively favorable, considering the views of most paranormal proponents. He made important contributions to psychical research, especially when he pointed out that parapsychologists needed a knowledge of magic. As I became professionally involved in parapsychology, I found his point to be largely ignored.6 His writings were a significant influence on my thinking and orientation to psychic claims. When I critiqued the research with Bill Delmore, which was highly regarded within parapsychology, Gardner provided very useful information.7

Proponents, as well as debunkers, have almost entirely avoided addressing his religious views (though I’ve made some attempt). Gardner’s struggles over his religious beliefs had a profound impact on his intellectual life. He understood that parapsychology had implications for religion, and he was uncomfortable with them. In fact, he wrote that some parapsychology experiments could be blasphemous, going on to add, “Let us not tempt God.”8

My comments above have been brief; they are meant only as an introduction to the more extended analysis included in The Trickster and the Paranormal. There I devoted more than 14 pages to Gardner, far more than for any other individual. The section appeared within the chapter on reflexivity, partly to provide a respite from that highly abstract topic and partly because Gardner was an important popularizer of the topic of self-reference. The section, which is critical but also appreciative, is now online.

Click here for section on Martin Gardner in The Trickster and the Paranormal (PDF file, 230KB)


1. Gardner’s animosity can be seen in his article “Notes of a Fringe-Watcher: Distant Healing and Elisabeth Targ” (Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 25, No. 2, March/April 2001, pp. 12-14). Russell Targ quoted at length from the article in his Do You See What I See?: Memoirs of a Blind Biker (Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc.; 2008. See pages xxx-xxxii.), demonstrating Gardner’s mean spiritedness.

2. Saucer Smear is the insider’s gossip zine of ufology, covering its scandals, fights, hoaxes, recriminations, lawsuits, felony convictions, etc. One could not become a “subscriber” to Saucer Smear, only a “non-subscriber.” Now in its 57th year, Smear is still edited by the court jester of ufology, James Moseley, who had a close association with James Randi.

3. Gardner was one of the founding members of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP, now the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry [CSI]). Jerome Clark justifiably called him “the godfather” of the skeptics movement (Clark, Jerome. [1990]. Skeptics and the New Age. In J. Gordon Melton, Jerome Clark, & Aidan A. Kelly [Eds.], New Age Encyclopedia [pp. 417-427]. Detroit, MI: Gale Research. See page 420.). For more on CSICOP, see my “CSICOP and the Skeptics: An Overview” (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Vol. 86, No. 1, 1992, pp. 19-63), which is available on my website.

4. The ubiquitous controversies and schisms in paranormal fields are captured by the word anti-structure, a term derived from the anthropological study of ritual. The concept explains characteristics of the trickster figure of mythology as well as properties of paranormal phenomena.

5. Adler, Jerry; with Carey, John. (1981, November 16). The Magician of Math. Newsweek, Vol. 98, p. 101.

6. As magician-academics such as Marcello Truzzi, Ray Hyman, Richard Wiseman, Daryl Bem, and Peter Lamont became more active in parapsychology, greater attention was given to the problem of deception.

7. Hansen, George P. (1992). The Research With B.D. and the Legacy of Magical Ignorance. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 307-333. Available on my website.

8. Gardner, Martin. (1983). The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener. New York: William Morrow. See page 23.

Monday, December 7, 2009

Psychophysical Research Laboratories’ PsiLab // Manual Now Online

During the 1980s, Psychophysical Research Laboratories (PRL) developed a package called PsiLab // to test psychic functioning using the Apple II series of computers.

The package included an electronic random number generator (RNG) on a circuit board that fit into an Apple II slot. The RNG was a modified version of one built by Dutch physicist Dick Bierman.

PsiLab // also included software to test the randomness of RNGs, computer games that used RNG output, and utilities for analysis. The PsiLab // manual (126 pages) gave considerable detail, but a very limited number of copies—perhaps no more than two dozen—were produced.

The PsiLab // manual is now online in PDF format. Two versions are available:

Click here for PsiLab // -- Searchable PDF (7.3 MB)

Click here for PsiLab // -- Nonsearchable PDF (3.1 MB)

The manual was cited in a number of journal articles reporting both laboratory-based research (e.g., Berger 1988; Don, McDonough, & Warren 1992; Honorton 1987) and field studies (e.g., Maher & Hansen 1992; Maher & Hansen 1995). Also, a number of researchers made use of the random analysis software and the methods for verifying adequate functioning of RNGs (e.g., Palmer & Kramer 1987; Vassy 1990).

PRL was headed by Charles Honorton, and it carried out research from 1979 to 1989 in Princeton, New Jersey. It focused on two primary areas: ESP under ganzfeld conditions and psi effects on electronic RNGs. For more information on PRL, see Broughton (1991, pp. 105-114; 1993), Hansen (2001, pp. 195-196, 206), and especially Schechter (1993). The 1993 articles by Broughton and Schechter were reprinted in Rao (1994).


Berger, Rick E. (1988). Psi Effects Without Real-Time Feedback. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 52, pp. 1-27.

Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Broughton, Richard S. (1993). A Craftsman and His Tools: The New Technology. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 57, pp. 111-127.

Don, Norman S.; McDonough, Bruce E.; & Warren, Charles A. (1992). Psi Testing of a Controversial Psychic Under Controlled Conditions. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 56, pp. 87-96.

Hansen, George P. (2001). The Trickster and the Paranormal. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris.

Honorton, Charles. (1987). Precognition and Real-Time ESP Performance in a Computer Task With an Exceptional Subject. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 51, pp. 291-320.

Maher, Michaeleen C. & Hansen, George P. (1992). Quantitative Investigation of a Reported Haunting Using Several Detection Techniques. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Vol. 86, pp. 347-374.

Maher, Michaeleen C. & Hansen, George P. (1995). Quantitative Investigation of a “Haunted Castle” in New Jersey. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Vol. 89, pp. 19-50.

Palmer, John & Kramer, Wim. (1987). Release of Effort in RNG PK: An Attempted Replication and Extension. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 51, pp. 125-136.

Rao, K. Ramakrishna. (1994). Charles Honorton and the Impoverished State of Skepticism: Essays on a Parapsychological Pioneer. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.

Schechter, Ephraim I. (1993). Psychophysical Research Laboratories. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 57, pp. 67-82.

Vassy, Zoltan. (1990). Experimental Study of Precognitive Timing: Indications of a Radically Noncausal Operation. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 54, pp. 299-320.

Tuesday, June 30, 2009

The Muhlenberg College 2009 Conference on Magic: A Review

Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania, held The Theory and Art of Magic conference during March 19-21, 2009. It was part of a larger academic program directed by Lawrence Hass, a professor of philosophy and theatre. The meeting was neither a typical magic convention nor a fully academic conference, but rather an unusual hybrid.

Although the conference was primarily devoted to performance magic, several paranormal and religious issues were discussed. Some of those were relevant to trickster theory. As such, I believed it worthwhile to prepare a focused, non-comprehensive review of the conference.

My review is available at—

(37 KB PDF file)

I spotlight the work of Eugene Burger, one of the most profound thinkers in magic today. I also allude to the marginal and anti-structural nature of performance magic, a characteristic it shares with the paranormal. Extensive endnotes are included for readers with specialized academic interests.

A schedule of the conference program is on the Muhlenberg College website—


Photos from the conference can be found at Dexter Lane’s website—


Monday, June 29, 2009

Articles on Magicians and the Paranormal Now Online

Now available on my website is the article “Magicians on the Paranormal: An Essay with a Review of Three Books,” which appeared in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (JASPR) in 1992. The article is something of a bibliographic study that addresses magicians’ writings on paranormal topics. For over 400 years magicians have confirmed and disputed the reality of paranormal phenomena. (The length of that debate is one illustration of the inherent anti-structural nature of the paranormal.)

Appended to the bibliographical study are three short reviews of non-academic books, two of which deserve little notice. The third, which has some merit, was coauthored by Joe Nickell, Senior Research Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (formerly known as CSICOP [Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal]).

Click here for the JASPR article (2.2 MB PDF file)

Already available online is my article “Magicians Who Endorsed Psychic Phenomena,” which appeared in The Linking Ring, the monthly magazine of the International Brotherhood of Magicians.

Click here for The Linking Ring article (1.1 MB PDF file)

Friday, April 4, 2008

X-Conference 2008: Scott Jones & John Alexander, speakers

X-Conference 2008 is to be devoted to uncovering the truth about government activity with UFOs. It is scheduled for April 18-20 in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Two of the speakers merit special attention: C. B. “Scott” Jones and John B. Alexander. Both have had decades-long involvement with ufology (as well as with remote viewing and parapsychology).

In the early 1990s, Jones publicly proclaimed that he “honestly did not know of any activity of the U.S. government” in the field of UFOs.1 But in 1992 Robert J. Durant produced a detailed, widely circulated white paper demonstrating that Jones was in a position to throw considerable light on government-UFO activities. (I am not aware of any response Jones made to that report.)

The Durant paper is available here

Colonel John Alexander (U.S. Army, retired) was heavily involved with the U.S. government’s psychic spying program, but he was also active with UFOs. In fact, Alexander admitted that he was the model for the “Harold Phillips” character in Howard Blum’s book Out There: The Government’s Secret Quest for Extraterrestrials (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990). (I was present when Alexander made the admission. Joseph Stefula was also present and can confirm it.)

Alexander has some unusual connections, such as the person of Gordon Novel—an exceptionally “colorful” character.2 Novel was somehow able to evade the extradition attempts of prosecutor Jim Garrison during his investigation of the Kennedy assassination. Garrison concluded that Novel’s intelligence associates were protecting him.3 Whatever the truth of the matter, other peculiarities in his background are disturbing.

Novel was convicted of illegally transporting electronic surveillance equipment in Nevada. Later in Georgia, he pleaded guilty to illegal possession of firearms. After being charged with fire bombing in Louisiana he jumped bail, but after recapture, his trial ended in a hung jury.4

Alexander has spent some time with Novel and has flaunted the affiliation,5 perhaps in an attempt to intimidate others. Martin Cannon, an investigator who has written on government mind-control projects, received a call from Alexander’s wife on May 30, 1993. She left a message on his answering machine saying: “Martin, as an ex-friend I have to warn you. John and Hal [Puthoff] are really pissed off at you. And they’ve given the matter over to Gordon [Novel] to handle. Watch out.” Cannon had no idea what had provoked the threat, but in his book The Controllers he had suggested that perhaps some UFO abduction accounts were actually due to screen memories imposed on the victims of a government mind-control program in order to conceal other atrocities. Cannon was well aware of Alexander’s interest in UFO abductions and of Novel’s background. He was quite alarmed, and the day he received the message, he called and played me the tape. I suggested that he alert a number of people in the media, and he also notified the FBI.

But Cannon was not the only one targeted by Alexander. Armen Victorian of England was one of the most effective researchers to use the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) to uncover government involvement in paranormal areas.6 Citing the FOIA, Victorian requested information about research at Los Alamos National Laboratory, but it was denied him. Undeterred, he placed a second request, seeking copies of all paperwork relating to the denial. Victorian thereby obtained a memorandum written by John Alexander to Gilbert Ortiz, dated 28 September 1993. In that memo, Alexander discussed Victorian and specifically complained about his role in the expose of Bruce Maccabee, a Navy physicist who spread rumors that the U.S. government knew of ET alien bases on earth.7 (Maccabee is scheduled to speak at X-Conference 2008.)

Alexander’s memo revealed that the CIA had requested “British Intelligence and the police to assist in resolving problems with” Victorian. Alexander did not discuss court action, legal remedies, or regulations that might be used to deny information. Rather it implied retaliation by government agents without due process, a serious abuse of power. Victorian subsequently reported that his home and car were broken into, that computer disks and other records stolen, and that someone had tampered with his mail.8 After an account of all this appeared in the January 1, 1995 edition of British newspaper The Observer9 his problems seemed to stop.

Concluding Remarks

Whatever one may think of Jones and Alexander, one cannot reasonably conclude that they have worked to inform the public about government-UFO activities. They have fostered ambiguity and suspicion, and perhaps worse. One might be skeptical of any statements they may make on the topic.

For more on Jones and Alexander, see The Trickster and the Paranormal pages 169-170, 228, 237-241, 243-244.


1. For instance: Jones, Cecil B. Government - UFO Connections in Mufon Symposium Proceedings, 1991, pp. 173-184. Seguin, TX: MUFON. See page 176.

2. An entire chapter is devoted to Gordon Novel in The Kennedy Conspiracy: An Uncommissioned Report on the Jim Garrison Investigation by Paris Flammonde, New York, NY: Meredith Press, 1969, pp. 96-109.

3. On the Trail of the Assassins by Jim Garrison, New York, NY: Warner Books, 1991, see pp. 208-211. (First published 1988)

4. Bizarre Rome Case Ends with Man Pleading Guilty by Betsy Neal, Atlanta Constitution, November 6, 1977, p. 15-B (page depends on edition).

5. A picture of Alexander with Novel was printed in Saucer Smear, Vol. 41, No. 9, December 5th, 1994, p. 6. Available at: http://www.martiansgohome.com/smear/v41/ss941205.htm. Accessed March 28, 2008.

6. Victorian formerly used the name Henry Azadehdel. On June 6, 1989, he was convicted of smuggling orchids into England.

7. Alexander’s memo was reproduced in Third Eyes Only (No. 19, March-April, 1994, pp. 33-38). Maccabee’s spreading of rumors of ET bases on earth can be found in his article Hiding the Hardware (International UFO Reporter, Vol. 16, No. 5, September/October, 1991, pp. 4-10, 23. See pp. 10, 23.) The expose of Maccabee was the Associated Investigators Report AIR #1 The Fund for CIA Research? or Who’s Disinforming Whom? (Third Eyes Only, No. 14, July, 1993, pp. 1-14.)

8. Britain in the 90s: Up Against the State by Armen Victorian, Lobster, No. 28, 1994, pp. 12-13. Victorian sent me copies of police reports he filed. If he had filed false ones, he could have been subject to prosecution.

9. Secret Service ‘Targets’ Military Writer by William Goodwin, The Observer (London), January 1, 1995, p. 10.

Friday, March 28, 2008

Zetetic Scholar: Numbers 6-8 Now Online

Zetetic Scholar numbers 6-8 (1980-1981) have just been put online in PDF format. Earlier issues were uploaded last year.

Click here to go to issues of Zetetic Scholar

Zetetic Scholar (ZS) was edited by Marcello Truzzi, who co-founded CSICOP (Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, now known as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry). Truzzi resigned from CSICOP after it became apparent that other members didn’t want a scientific organization, but rather an advocacy group. Truzzi established ZS to foster scholarly debate and dialogue between critics and proponents of the paranormal.

ZS issues 6-8 include dialogues on remote viewing, parapsychology, and UFOs. Some of the contributors include: Robert Jahn, Paul Feyerabend, Ray Hyman, John Beloff, I. J. Good, Charles Tart, Antony Flew, Henry Bauer, David Hoy, Jerome Clark, Robert Morris, Persi Diaconis, J. Allen Hynek, John Keel, and Bruce Maccabee.

Saturday, March 8, 2008

Back Issues of Archaeus Are Now Online

Click here for back issues of Archaeus

The Archaeus Project: Overview

The Archaeus Project was one of the groups active in the 1980s and early 1990s. It was founded in 1982 in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area (Bakken, n.d., p.74), and during its early years it focused heavily, though not exclusively, on the paranormal. It conducted investigations, sponsored lecture series, held conferences, established a library, and published periodicals and monographs.

Its journal, Archaeus, was published in five volumes, from 1983 to 1989. It carried papers from a variety of contributors, with names familiar to paranormal researchers, including (in order of first appearance): Eldon A. Byrd, Jack Houck, James McClenon, John Thomas Richards, Dennis Stillings, Robert C. Beck, Jule Eisenbud, Andrija Puharich, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Otto H. Schmitt, George P. Hansen, W. E. Cox, Robert E. L. Masters, Earl E. Bakken, Hilary Evans, Martin S. Kottmeyer, Peter M. Rojcewicz, Michael Grosso, Alvin H. Lawson, Michael A. Persinger.

The Archaeus Project began as a discussion group in the home of Earl Bakken, an inventor-businessman who co-founded Medtronic, which was ranked number 222 in the 2007 Fortune 500 list, with a market value of $57 billion (Bakken, n.d., p. 73; Fortune 500, 2007, pp. F-11 – F-12). The group was soon joined by Dennis Stillings, who had earlier built the collections of The Bakken, now a renowned library and museum focusing on electricity and life (Bakken, n.d., pp. 70-71; Stillings, 2001). Stillings went on to become the director of the Archaeus Project.

The group had a number of other members with significant mainstream accomplishments. Otto Schmitt, an eminent biophysicist, was one of the early members involved with paranormal investigations. The November-December 2004 issue of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine devoted over 40 pages to Schmitt and his work, including an article by Stillings. John E. Haaland, a former Corporate Vice President of the Pillsbury Company, was another member. In 1998 Haaland and members of Robert Jahn’s PEAR (Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research) laboratory at Princeton University received a patent for an electronic random-number generator used to control a game toy or computer display (Bradish et al, 1998). Archaeus Project member Karen Olness, M.D., a professor of pediatrics, has received honors for improving children’s health around the world.

The Archaeus Project kept in touch with other groups and brought active researchers to Minneapolis and St. Paul for public lectures. Stillings was given sufficient funds for considerable travel, and he had a chance to observe a wide range of paranormal activities and the subcultures surrounding them. Through its journal Archaeus and its newsletter/magazine Artifex it chronicled the paranormal scene, and Stillings provided illuminating commentary, often from a Jungian perspective. (Most of his commentaries are not currently available online.)

In 1993 the Archaeus Project moved to Hawaii as its focus shifted to more mainstream healthcare-related matters. In 2001 it became a sole proprietorship owned by Dennis Stillings. It has not since been active in paranormal areas, though Stillings retains his personal interest.

The Archaeus Project and Anti-structure

The Archaeus Project displays characteristics of anti-structure that typify many paranormal groups. The term anti-structure captures the instability and marginality of paranormal organizations, as well as the lack of long-lived institutions that remain effective. (I am speaking here primarily of those groups that make attempts to directly engage paranormal phenomena.)

The word anti-structure was used by anthropologist Victor Turner in the subtitle of his book The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (1969). He used it almost synonymously with liminality. Neither of the two terms is commonly known within paranormal fields, and indeed, even young anthropologists are not too likely to be familiar with the words (the social sciences are marked by a high degree of faddishness). Yet Turner was a major figure in anthropology; his concepts have been adopted in other fields, and extensions of his theoretical work give considerable insight into the paranormal. A full explanation of anti-structure and its ramifications would take too much space here. But I hope that the reader will get some sense of them from this discussion.

The Archaeus Project had office space and a paid staff. But it was small. Most of the work was done by Stillings, with help from Gail Duke. Yet for a paranormal group, it was well supported; indeed it would be the envy of many researchers today. Nevertheless, by comparison to a conventional business, church, or school, it was a tiny operation. It was not integrated into a larger organization; rather, it was an autonomous entity. That allowed considerable freedom but made it more vulnerable to the vagaries of funding, personnel changes, etc.

The Archaeus Project was supported by a wealthy individual, rather than government agencies or foundations run by professional philanthropists. As I pointed out in my book (pp. 197-198), the funding sources for psychical research reflect the anti-structural nature of psi. The greatest support for open (i.e., nonclassified) research has come from wealthy individuals such as James S. McDonnell (McDonnell Douglas Corporation), Thomas Welton Stanford (brother of Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University), Frances Bolton (congresswoman), Thomas Baker Slick, Jr. (oil man), John E. Fetzer (owner of radio and television stations and the Detroit Tigers baseball team), George W. Church, Jr. (Church’s Fried Chicken), W. Clement Stone (insurance magnate), Arthur Koestler (author), Chester F. Carlson (inventor of the Xerox process), Masaru Ibuka (co-founder of Sony), and Robert Bigelow (real estate tycoon, Bigelow Aerospace). Overall, large philanthropic institutions have made comparatively modest contributions. Some of the people listed above established foundations to support parapsychology, but after their deaths, professional philanthropists took control, changed the focus of the foundations, and eliminated support for parapsychology. Unlike other areas of science, it is not institutions (e.g., corporations, government agencies, philanthropic foundations), but rather individuals, who have provided the primary financial backing for psychical research. This is simply another manifestation of anti-structure and the anti-institutional nature of psi.

The Archaeus Project’s involvement with paranormal topics spanned approximately 10 years. Its historical trajectory is typical of other groups. In the early phase, experiments were undertaken, and efforts were made to directly observe paranormal events. Small newsletters were published. As the Archaeus Project became more established, the bulk of its efforts shifted more toward publishing its journal and magazine, rather than directly engaging the phenomena. Eventually, attention turned away from paranormal topics altogether, and its research into the paranormal failed to be effectively institutionalized for the long term.

Concluding Comments

Some might perceive my above comments as being rather downbeat, focusing too heavily on the failure. Such a perception would miss the point. The Archaeus Project was far more successful, and made more of a contribution, than the vast majority of groups devoted to the paranormal. It left a legacy of written materials that chronicled paranormal activities and commented on many facets, often with considerable insight. Despite its successes, it displayed the manifestations of anti-structure typical of paranormal groups.

In closing, I might mention that the single most important factor that led me to writing The Trickster and the Paranormal was a decade of discussions with the director of the Archaeus Project, Dennis Stillings.


Bakken, Earl E. (n.d.). One Man’s Full Life. Available at: http://www.earlbakken.com/content/publications/one.mans.pdf. Accessed March 8, 2008.

Bradish, G. Johnston; Dobyns, York H.; Dunne, Brenda J.; Jahn, Robert G.; Nelson, Roger D.; Haaland, John E.; Hamer, Steven M. Apparatus and method for distinguishing events which collectively exceed chance expectations and thereby controlling an output. U.S. Patent No. 5,830,064. November 3, 1998.

Fortune 500 Largest U.S. Corporations. Fortune, Vol. 155, No. 8, April 30, 2007, pp. F-1 – F-29.

Hansen, George P. (2001). The Trickster and the Paranormal. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation.

Stillings, Dennis. (2004). Otto Schmitt and the Archaeus Project: Adventures in the Anomalous. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 57-59.

Stillings, Dennis. (2001). The Bakken: A Library and Museum of Electricity in Life. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 255-266.

Turner, Victor W. (1969). The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.


A short history of the Archaeus Project is given at:


A short history of The Bakken is given at:


Dennis Stillings’ article on The Bakken in the Journal of Scientific Exploration is available at: